Urban Survival kits
Preparing for Natural Disasters and Major Incidents
In 1986 John "Lofty" Wiseman's book "The SAS Survival Handbook" bought the concept of Survival Kits to the public attention. Tobacco tins were looted and crammed full of fishing hooks and candles and anything else small and useful you could fit into them. After a time, when people realised you couldn't eat them and they didn't keep you warm at night, the realisation dawned on schoolboys up and down the country that carrying survival tins for wilderness situations was, perhaps, a little foolish.
25 years ago survivalism was a niche area - the preserve of the military and dedicated bushcrafters.
The explosion of travel industry to more remote areas, a greater number of independent travellers, increased urbanisation in and around areas with high probability of natural disasters and a hightend terroirism threat post 9/11 have triggered a renaisance in survivalism in the form of 'Preparedness' for major incidents in urban environments, at home and abroad.
In the same way that the contents of your First Aid kit should reflect your needs and situation, the equipment you might consider should similarly reflect your:
areas of political / civil / military unrest
Terrorist targets - typically western city centres, especially business districts.
Diplomatic service, NGO's, Financial sector, frequent traveller
Proximity to definitive safety
Urban versus remote
Home nation versus travelling abroad
What do I need?
To best answer that it is worth considering the likelihood of experiencing a hostile situation (kidnapping, terrorism etc) or natural disaster (earthquake, flooding etc.) and deciding which Tier of preparedness is appropriate for you.
Tier 1 - Every Day Carry
Every Day Carry (EDC) is a term for the items you would always want to have about you to help get you home safely or safely out of harms way. The key to it being an 'everyday' list is that it needs to be a small list and things that you would really have the tenacity to carry with you all day, every day. It is very easy to let this list grow. Before you know it you have a belt full of pouches and you bulging key ring is full of whistles, torches, compasses, knives and so on, which becomes an inhibitor to carrying it.
Your EDC should be small, unobtrusive and be able to fit in your pockets.
The cheaper the better as it is less likely to get stolen but a dual sim quadband phone is recommended for the frequent traveller. A smart phone will be able to make use of the many Apps which in tandem with most smart phone's GPS will be able to give you an accurate location which is important when trying to establish help, be it in a foreign country or a nondescript British B road in the dead of night. Read more about Mobile Phones here.
It is a good insurance policy to have a credit card with as much limit as you can negotiate which you never use. This requires willpower. In most urban areas, anywhere in the world, having a Visa or MasterCard with £2000 can get you food, accommodation or even a plane flight home.
As much as you can reasonably afford to lose.
As with the phone, in many ways cheaper is better. A posh watch will draw attention to yourself which is not wanted in a hostile situation and a cheap one won't hurt if it gets stolen or broken. The key thing with a good watch is to ask yourself "what do I need it for?" The answer should be 'to tell the time' and nothing else. It doesn't matter if it is analogue or digital; the face needs to be uncluttered and easy to read. Esoteric chronographs have overtones of the 'professional pilot' but you will never need to time anything down to 1/100th of a second. Similarly, a digital watch laden with accessories and features is unnecessarily bulky, unnecessarily difficult to read and unnecessarily expensive. Numbers, Day, Date. That is it. If it glows in the dark or illuminates properly, all the better.
For more information, read our article "The Ideal 'Adventurers' Watch"
Again, it is about functionality. Don't go for the biggest tool with the most features as its size and weight will put you off carrying it around with you all day. The Leatherman Wave is great balance of function and size.
A small AAA battery torch like the Fenix E05 or a lithium LED 'pinch' torch which is small enough to fit on your key ring. Whilst you would not expect it to illuminate you journey home, these powerful little torches provide enough light to guide you out of a dark or smoke filled building or even signal your location over short range.
The basics of survival, be it urban or remote, short or long term are shelter, food, warmth and signalling. A lighter and any combustible material can provide the last two.
A fine point marker pen is more use than a thick marker for making notes and can write on more surfaces than a ballpoint pen. Don't worry too much about carrying a notebook as you can usually lay your hands on some writing material somewhere.
Tip - Be frugal. Each item should have a purpose and they should be essential. Avoid gadgets or gimmicks such as credit card sized multi tools or carabiners with a built in torch and compass.
Tier 2 - Grab Bag
Enough for 72 hours or more. Cramming 3 days of food into a 30Ltr rucksack means it won't be fine dining but make sure that whatever you carry is high in calories and easily digestible. Try several brands of dehydrated food or foil packed 'wet' food such a Wayfayrer meals to ensure they do not disagree with you.
Several options: The Hexamine stove is often favoured for its diminutive size but it is far from the most efficient stoves and is limited in fuel choice - typically hexamine fuel block, fire lighters, charcoal etc.
Gas canisters are by far the most convenient and one one of the most efficient fuel sources. The Jetboil is one of the most efficient gas stoves on the market and is sold as a complete cooking system together with pot and lid, that stacks away inside itself for ease of storage. Again it is limited to one type of fuel source that may not be available.
There are strict laws on traveling with pressurised canisters and in a worst-case-scenario they may not be easily obtainable in which case a multi-fuel stove would be far superior. Many of these are available and burn a wide range of liquid fuels including pressurized gas such as the Primus Omni-Fuel. Multifuel stoves often require a specific nozzle to be changed in order to burn a particular fuel type. This can be a fiddly job and is open to the possibility of a nozzle being lost. The Optimus Polaris Optifuel burns a wide range of liquid fuels and pressurised gas without the need for changing nozzles.
To cook in you will need pans. Traditional army style mess tins really can't be beaten, certainly not on price. At the other end of the scale the MSR Titanium Kettle is favoured with alpinists as their all-in-one camp kitchen. An 850ml pot with lid that is large enough to cook something in and small enough to drink straight from as a mug. Whatever you choose it is an added benefit if your stove can fit in you pans to save space.
Save more space and weight by just packing a spoon or a 'spork'. But do pack a green hairy scourer and a small bottle of washing up liquid. This may sound luxurious but hygiene is not a luxury, it is a necessity to prevent illness.
A 2-3Ltr bladder system is ideal in a rucksack, taking up next to no space when not in use. Also consider carrying a larger fold-flat water carrier such as the ones from Ortlieb or Platypus, if you need to stock up on clean water when it becomes available. For short term use, water purifying tablets will suffice but in areas where water is expected to be dirty as well as contaminated, or when larger quantities of clean water will be needed a water purifying system such as those available from Katadyn and MSR are attractive but weighty. Really dirty water can be cleaned through disposable coffee filters before purification; these are cheap and lightweight. All water, purified or filtered should be boiled for 3 minutes before drinking.
A torch is an essential Grab Bag item. The brighter the better; the Fenix PD35 offers a ridiculous 1000 lumens with 2hrs 50 mins runtime on full power for a reasonable £70.00 but requires 18650 or CR123 batteries which are incredibly expensive and difficult to come by, especially abroad. The similarly priced Fenix LD41 offers 960 lumens powered by more easily available AA batteries but is slightly larger and heavier and with only a 1hr runtime om full power as a result.
Headlamps have the 'hands free' advantage and the Petzl Myo RXP offers a range of output levels, is small, light and runs on commonly available AAA batteries. Other well known high power torches include Led Lenser and Sure Fire which use more commonly available CR 123, AA or AAA batteries.
There is real mileage - especially when traveling in developing countries - to ensure all of your electrical products run on commonly available batteries. Always carry spares.
A couple of chemical lightsicks have their place too, notably for marking people and places.
Birth certificates, insurance documents, driving license and immunisation certificates should be carried with you at all times, either originals or good quality copies. We came across Loksaks recently which are completely waterproof document wallets; ideal for slipping discretely into shirt pockets.
Your phone might have 300 hours standby time but the 12 hours talk time will quickly be eaten up if trying to arrange repatriation home from abroad or if you are the only point of contact via phone with the emergency services.
No need for deodorants or make-up but wet-wipes, toothpaste and toothbrush. Wet wipes have the advantage of not needing water to give yourself a rudimentary clean. Shower Gel in an arid environment or when there is no water will just be frustrating. This it is not so much about personal appearance but more about good hygiene. Hygiene prevents illness and infection which can be debilitating.
One spare change of clothing
Appropriate for the climate and environment.
Even if you don't think you will need them pack a small, lightweight waterproof jacket and trousers together with a hat and pair of gloves. The warmest of places can become very cold on a cloudless night.
First Aid Kit
Enough for you, with your medication. More information here
GPS, Map and Compass
A small, basic GPS unit (with spare batteries) is of more use abroad or when evacuating an urban area. Maps of the local area and a compass and knowledge of how to use them are always useful.
Knife & Folding Saw
A more purposeful knife than the multi-tool carried in your EDC. Remember there are strict laws on carrying and travelling with knives and these laws may be different depending in what county are you are in.
Escape Hoods & Face Masks
Smoke inhalation is the most common cause of death in fires, rather than the fire itself and where there is a risk of CBRN attack the gold standard in personal protective equipment for emergency escape of buildings would be an escape hood with its own supply of oxygen. Products such as the Dräger Saver CF are, in reality, too cumbersome to fit in a grab bag and also prohibitively expensive. Neither the Dräger PARAT 7500 nor Avon NH15 provide self-contained oxygen but are smaller, more convenient packages.
If the considered risk is low, disposable dust masks take up suck little space and weight they are worth considering for inclusion.
A good nights sleep can have a profound effect on your psychology, whether it is on the floor of an airport waiting area or an emergency refugee camp. Down filled sleeping bags provide the best warmth to weight/size ratio but provide no insulation when wet. Modern synthetic bags are nearly a good in terms of warmth to weight. Choose the lowest warmth rating (expressed as 'Seasons') as you can get away with. A combination of a 1 Season sleeping bag with a 3 Season sleeping bag can provide a more flexible system depending on the climate at less than the cost of one Down filled sleeping bag.
If your risk assessment include the risk of benightment - being without shelter then a solution must be considered. The two best lightweight shelter systems are a bivvi bag with tarp (or 'basha') or a Hammock with tarp. Hammocks are more comfortable and don't require an even, flat surface beneath you to get a good nights sleep but they do require two good fixing points from which to hang. Hennessy Hammocks make very good hammock/tarp sleeping systems. Conversely, you will probably find more suitable locations to bed down in a bivvi bag. A Thermarest may seem like a luxury but do not underestimate the psychological power of a good night's sleep.
A good length of Para Cord will satisfy a multitude of uses, not least for setting up your tarp to sleep under.
Tip: Avoid camouflage clothing and equipment at all costs: It can be a benefit to be unobtrusive but there is also a benefit to being easily seen if you need rescue, furthermore, in many parts of the world camouflage clothing or army surplus equipment will make you look like a terrorist or member of a paramilitary organisation with serious consequences.
Tier 3 - Vehicle Equipment
If you have use of your own vehicle you are instantly able to carry more equipment, expedite yourself away from danger and remain self sufficient for longer. The contents should be securely and unobtrusively stowed. Most accidents on expeditions involve vehicles so seek further training if appropriate and learn the basics of vehicle repair.
Most serious accidents which happen abroad - whether package holidays, business trips or pioneering expedition for unexplored areas - are caused by vehicles. The incidence rate of accidents increase ten-fold when driving off road. The use of a vehicle should be seen as a responsibility rather than a luxury.
As well as driving skills it is wise to know what to do when things go wrong so as well as packing vital items, learn how to use them.
Things to consider:
Medic Bag - a more substantial first aid kit.
Additional Food and Water - sealed water if possible. In a vehicle Hot Cans can easily be carried
GPS & Software for your area.
Lithium vehicle battery jump pack and/or Jump Leads
Fluids - Antifreeze, Coolant, Oil and Spare Fuel
Spare Tyre, Jack, Wheel brace and Foot Pump.
Tool Kit (minimum)
Selection of spanners - open and ring
Selection of screwdrivers
Hex & Torx bits and driver
Ensure your vehicle is maintained and roadworthy. POWER is a useful prompt for regular and pre-journey checks:
Petrol or Diesel: Enough fuel in both the main tank and a reserve Jerry Can
Oils: Check levels of Engine Oil, Brake, Clutch and Power Steering Fluids.
Water: Engine coolant and Anti Freeze levels are checked.
Electrics: Check all lights and wipers.
Rubber: Check tyres (including the spare )for tread depth, pressure and uneven wear. Check wiper blades and drive/fan belts. Carry spare of both.